Indicates how much the function f is changing - is it increasing or decreasing.
A simple method for minimizing a function by changing its parameters in the direction the function decreases.
A function that measures how well a predicted value Ŷ matches some ground-truth value Y
A technique used when minimizing a function using gradeint descent that helps avoid local minima
Indicates how much the function f(x,y) is changing if you change only one of its arguments.